Plant Transcription Factor Database
Previous version: v3.0
Ricinus communis
G2-like Family
Species TF ID Description
27757.m000022G2-like family protein
27914.m000409G2-like family protein
27973.m000086G2-like family protein
28582.m000316G2-like family protein
28582.m000317G2-like family protein
28582.m000318G2-like family protein
28738.m000151G2-like family protein
28883.m000751G2-like family protein
29637.m000753G2-like family protein
29676.m001636G2-like family protein
29680.m001711G2-like family protein
29701.m000580G2-like family protein
29751.m001898G2-like family protein
29780.m001324G2-like family protein
29780.m001368G2-like family protein
29790.m000831G2-like family protein
29805.m001543G2-like family protein
29805.m001544G2-like family protein
29807.m000474G2-like family protein
29813.m001501G2-like family protein
29814.m000747G2-like family protein
29827.m002675G2-like family protein
29842.m003572G2-like family protein
29904.m002952G2-like family protein
29950.m001149G2-like family protein
29983.m003131G2-like family protein
30005.m001245G2-like family protein
30017.m000317G2-like family protein
30068.m002645G2-like family protein
30169.m006598G2-like family protein
30170.m013948G2-like family protein
30180.m001019G2-like family protein
30226.m001993G2-like family protein
G2-like Family Introduction

The GLK proteins are members of the recently categorized GARP superfamily of transcription factors (Riechmann et al., 2000) defined by G2 in maize; the Arabidopsis RESPONSE REGULATOR-B (ARR-B) proteins (Imamura et al., 1999); and the PHOSPHATE STARVATION RESPONSE1 (PSR1) protein of Chlamydomonas (Wykoff et al., 1999). In the case of G2, three of the four defining features of most transcription factors have been verified experimentally in heterologous systems. G2 is nuclearlocalized (Hall et al., 1998), is able to transactivate reporter gene expression, and can both homo-dimerize and heterodimerize with ZmGLK1 (Rossini et al., 2001). DNA-binding activity of GLK proteins has yet to be demonstrated,however, the putative DNA-binding domain is highly conserved with domains in other GARP proteins such as ARR1 and ARR2 (Riechmann et al., 2000). Notably, ARR1 and ARR2 have been shown to bind DNA (Sakai et al.,2000), thus it is likely that GLK proteins act as transcriptional regulators of chloroplast development.

The GLK proteins are members of the GARP superfamily of transcription factors, and phylogenetic analysis demonstrates that the maize, rice and Arabidopsis GLK gene pairs comprise a distinct group within the GARP superfamily. Further phylogenetic analysis suggests that the gene pairs arose through separate duplication events in the monocot and dicot lineages. As in rice, AtGLK1 and AtGLK2 are expressed in partially overlapping domains in photosynthetic tissue. GLK genes therefore regulate chloroplast development in diverse plant species.

Fitter DW, Martin DJ, Copley MJ, Scotland RW, Langdale JA.
GLK gene pairs regulate chloroplast development in diverse plant species.
Plant J. 2002 Sep;31(6):713-27.
PMID: 12220263